Scientific Research

  1. Klein S, Klotz M, Eigenbrod T. First isolation of Mycoplasma canis from human tissue samples after a dog bite. New Microbes New Infect. Sep 2018;25:14-15. doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2018.05.003
  2. Michaels DL, Leibowitz JA, Azaiza MT, et al. Cellular Microbiology of Mycoplasma canis. Infection and Immunity. 2016;84(6):1785-1795. doi:10.1128/iai.01440-15
  3. Frøssing L, Silberbrandt A, Von Bülow A, Backer V, Porsbjerg C. The Prevalence of Subtypes of Type 2 Inflammation in an Unselected Population of Patients with Severe Asthma. The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology: In Practice. 2020/10/08/ 2020;doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaip.2020.09.051
  4. Rubin K, Glazer S. The pertussis hypothesis: Bordetella pertussis colonization in the etiology of asthma and diseases of allergic sensitization. Medical Hypotheses. 2018;120:101-115. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2018.08.006
  5. Webley WC, Hahn DL. Infection-mediated asthma: etiology, mechanisms and treatment options, with focus on Chlamydia pneumoniae and macrolides. Respiratory Research. 2017;18(1)doi:10.1186/s12931-017-0584-z
  6. Gonzalez MJ, Seyfried T, Nicolson GL, et al. Mitochondrial correction: a new therapeutic paradigm for cancer and degenerative diseases. J Orthomol Med. 2018;33(4)
  7. Comprehensive molecular profiling of lung adenocarcinoma. Nature. 2014;511(7511):543-550. doi:10.1038/nature13385
  8. Aisner DL, Marshall CB. Molecular Pathology of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer. American Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2012;138(3):332-346. doi:10.1309/ajcpfr12wjkceezz
  9. Barbera-Guillem E, Nyhus JK, Wolford CC, Friece CR, Sampsel JW. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Secretion by Tumor-infiltrating Macrophages Essentially Supports Tumor Angiogenesis, and IgG Immune Complexes Potentiate the Process. Cancer Research. 2002;62(23):7042-7049.
  10. Biernat-Sudolska M, Szostek S, Rojek-Zakrzewska D, Klimek M, Kosz-Vnenchak M. Concomitant infections with human papillomavirus and various mycoplasma and ureaplsasma species in women with abnormal cervical cytology. Advances in Medical Sciences. 2011;56(2):299-303. doi:10.2478/v10039-011-0028-9
  11. Braune E-B, Seshire A, Lendahl U. Notch and Wnt Dysregulation and Its Relevance for Breast Cancer and Tumor Initiation. Biomedicines. 2018;6(4):101. doi:10.3390/biomedicines6040101
  12. Molina JR, Yang P, Cassivi SD, Schild SE, Adjei AA. Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Treatment, and Survivorship. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 2008;83(5):584-594. doi:10.4065/83.5.584
  13. Ghajar CM, Correia AL, Bissell MJ. The Role of the Microenvironment in Tumor Initiation, Progression, and Metastasis. Elsevier; 2015:239-256.e5.
  14. Hirsch FR, Spreafico A, Novello S, Wood MD, Simms L, Papotti M. The Prognostic and Predictive Role of Histology in Advanced Non-small Cell Lung Cancer: A Literature Review. Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 2008;3(12):1468-1481. doi:10.1097/jto.0b013e318189f551
  15. Howley PM. 6 - Infectious Agents and Cancer. In: Mendelsohn J, Gray JW, Howley PM, Israel MA, Thompson CB, eds. The Molecular Basis of Cancer (Fourth Edition). W.B. Saunders; 2015:79-102.e4.
  16. Ishiji T. Molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis by human papillomavirus-16. J Dermatol. Feb 2000;27(2):73-86. doi:10.1111/j.1346-8138.2000.tb02126.x
  17. Ketcham CM, Anai S, Reutzel R, et al. p37 induces tumor invasiveness. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics. 2005;4(7):1031-1038. doi:10.1158/1535-7163.mct-05-0040
  18. Kew MC. Synergistic interaction between aflatoxin B1 and hepatitis B virus in hepatocarcinogenesis. Liver International. 2003;23(6):405-409. doi:10.1111/j.1478-3231.2003.00869.x
  19. Kim MK, Shin S-J, Lee HM, et al. Mycoplasma infection promotes tumor progression via interaction of the mycoplasmal protein p37 and epithelial cell adhesion molecule in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cancer Letters. 2019;454:44-52. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2019.04.007
  20. Labidi-Galy SI, Sisirak V, Meeus P, et al. Quantitative and Functional Alterations of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells Contribute to Immune Tolerance in Ovarian Cancer. Cancer Research. 2011;71(16):5423-5434. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-11-0367
  21. Larsen JE, Govindan R, Minna JD. 32 - Molecular Basis of Lung Cancer. In: Mendelsohn J, Gray JW, Howley PM, Israel MA, Thompson CB, eds. The Molecular Basis of Cancer (Fourth Edition). W.B. Saunders; 2015:475-490.e1.
  22. Li H-Y, Ju D, Zhang D-W, et al. Activation of TGF-β1-CD147 positive feedback loop in hepatic stellate cells promotes liver fibrosis. Scientific Reports. 2015;5(1):16552. doi:10.1038/srep16552
  23. McLaughlin-Drubin ME, Meyers J, Munger K. Cancer associated human papillomaviruses. Current Opinion in Virology. 2012;2(4):459-466. doi:10.1016/j.coviro.2012.05.004
  24. Menter DG, Herrmann JL, Nicolson GL. The role of trophic factors and autocrine/paracrine growth factors in brain metastasis. Clin Exp Metastasis. Mar 1995;13(2):67-88. doi:10.1007/BF00133612
  25. Miyake M, Ohnishi K, Hori S, et al. Mycoplasma genitalium Infection and Chronic Inflammation in Human Prostate Cancer: Detection Using Prostatectomy and Needle Biopsy Specimens. Cells. 2019;8(3):212. doi:10.3390/cells8030212
  26. Muraoka-Cook RS, Dumont N, Arteaga CL. Dual Role of Transforming Growth Factor β in Mammary Tumorigenesis and Metastatic Progression. Clinical Cancer Research. 2005;11(2):937s-943s.
  27. Nakajima M, Irimura T, Nicolson GL. membrane. 1983;8(1):2-14. doi:10.5360/membrane.8.2
  28. Nakajima M, Welch DR, Belloni PN, Nicolson GL. Degradation of Basement Membrane Type IV Collagen and Lung Subendothelial Matrix by Rat Mammary Adenocarcinoma Cell Clones of Differing Metastatic Potentials. Cancer Research. 1987;47(18):4869-4876.
  29. Naseem M, Barzi A, Brezden-Masley C, et al. Outlooks on Epstein-Barr virus associated gastric cancer. Cancer Treatment Reviews. 2018;66:15-22. doi:10.1016/j.ctrv.2018.03.006
  30. Nicolson GL. Tumor microenvironment: paracrine and autocrine growth mechanisms and metastasis to specific sites. Front Radiat Ther Oncol. 1994;28:11-24. doi:10.1159/000423369
  31. Nicolson GL. Cell Membrane Fluid–Mosaic Structure and Cancer Metastasis. Cancer Research. 2015;75(7):1169-1176. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-14-3216
  32. Nicolson GL, Menter DG, Herrmann JL, Yun Z, Cavanaugh P, Marchetti D. Brain metastasis: role of trophic, autocrine, and paracrine factors in tumor invasion and colonization of the central nervous system. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1996;213 ( Pt 2):89-115. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-61109-4_5
  33. Radomski JL, Greenwald D, Hearn WL, Block NL. Nitrosamine Formation in Bladder Infections and its Role in the Etiology of Bladder Cancer. The Journal of Urology. 1978/07/01/ 1978;120(1):48-50. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-5347(17)57035-4
  34. Roussos ET, Condeelis JS, Patsialou A. Chemotaxis in cancer. Nature Reviews Cancer. 2011;11(8):573-587. doi:10.1038/nrc3078
  35. Sanchez-Vega F, Mina M, Armenia J, et al. Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in The Cancer Genome Atlas. Cell. 2018;173(2):321-337.e10. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2018.03.035
  36. Smith AJ, Oertle J, Prato D. Cancer and Infectious Causes. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology. 2014;04(03):161-177. doi:10.4236/ojmm.2014.43019
  37. Toh Y, Nicolson GL. MTA1 of the MTA (metastasis-associated) gene family and its encoded proteins: molecular and regulatory functions and role in human cancer progression. Atlas of Genetics and Cytogenetics in Oncology and Haematology. 2011;(3)doi:10.4267/2042/44992
  38. Toh Y, Nicolson GL. Signaling Pathways of MTA Family Proteins as Regulators of Cancer Progression and Metastasis. Trends in Stem Cell Proliferation and Cancer Research. 2013:251-275:chap Chapter 10.
  39. Toh Y, Nicolson GL. Properties and clinical relevance of MTA1 protein in human cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. Dec 2014;33(4):891-900. doi:10.1007/s10555-014-9516-2
  40. Tsim S, O’Dowd CA, Milroy R, Davidson S. Staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC): A review. Respiratory Medicine. 2010;104(12):1767-1774. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2010.08.005
  41. Urbanek C, Goodison S, Chang M, et al. Detection of antibodies directed at M. hyorhinis p37 in the serum of men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. BMC Cancer. 2011;11(1):233. doi:10.1186/1471-2407-11-233
  42. Vande Voorde J, Sabuncuoğlu S, Noppen S, et al. Nucleoside-catabolizing Enzymes in Mycoplasma-infected Tumor Cell Cultures Compromise the Cytostatic Activity of the Anticancer Drug Gemcitabine. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2014;289(19):13054-13065. doi:10.1074/jbc.m114.558924
  43. Weng J, Li Y, Cai L, et al. Elimination of Mycoplasma Contamination from Infected Human Hepatocyte C3A Cells by Intraperitoneal Injection in BALB/c Mice. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology. 2017;7doi:10.3389/fcimb.2017.00440
  44. Wu L, Chang W, Zhao J, et al. Development of Autoantibody Signatures as Novel Diagnostic Biomarkers of Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. 2010;16(14):3760-3768. doi:10.1158/1078-0432.ccr-10-0193
  45. Wu X, Gu, Jian. . Biomarkers for assessing risk in cancer. Elsevier; 2014:317-327.e1.
  46. Wyckoff J, Wang W, Lin EY, et al. A Paracrine Loop between Tumor Cells and Macrophages Is Required for Tumor Cell Migration in Mammary Tumors. Cancer Research. 2004;64(19):7022-7029. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.can-04-1449
  47. Zarei O, Rezania S, Mousavi A. Mycoplasma genitalium and Cancer: A Brief Review. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2013;14(6):3425-3428. doi:10.7314/apjcp.2013.14.6.3425
  48. Zeng H, Wang Y, Zhang Y. XXYLT1 methylation contributes to the occurrence of lung adenocarcinoma: Methylation and lung adenocarcinoma. Medicine. 01/08 2021;100:e24150. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000024150
  49. Zur Hausen H. The search for infectious causes of human cancers: Where and why. Virology. 2009;392(1):1-10. doi:10.1016/j.virol.2009.06.001
  50. Blaskovich MAT, Kavanagh AM, Elliott AG, et al. The antimicrobial potential of cannabidiol. Communications Biology. 2021;4(1)doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01530-y
  51. Schilling JM, Hughes CG, Wallace MS, Sexton M, Backonja M, Moeller-Bertram T. Cannabidiol as a Treatment for Chronic Pain: A Survey of Patients’ Perspectives and Attitudes. Journal of Pain Research. 2021;Volume 14:1241-1250. doi:10.2147/jpr.s278718
  52. Whiting PF, Wolff RF, Deshpande S, et al. Cannabinoids for Medical Use. JAMA. 2015;313(24):2456. doi:10.1001/jama.2015.6358
  53. Ciofu O, Hansen CR, Høiby N. Respiratory bacterial infections in cystic fibrosis. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine. 2013;19(3):251-258. doi:10.1097/MCP.0b013e32835f1afc
  54. Høiby N, Ciofu O, Bjarnsholt T. Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in cystic fibrosis. Future Microbiology. 2010;5(11):1663-1674. doi:10.2217/fmb.10.125
  55. McCallum SJ. Spread of an epidemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain from a patient with cystic fibrosis (CF) to non-CF relatives. Thorax. 2002;57(6):559-560. doi:10.1136/thorax.57.6.559
  56. Scotet V, L’Hostis C, Férec C. The Changing Epidemiology of Cystic Fibrosis: Incidence, Survival and Impact of the CFTR Gene Discovery. Genes. 2020;11(6):589. doi:10.3390/genes11060589
  57. Bierne H, Hamon M, Cossart P. Epigenetics and Bacterial Infections. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. 2012;2(12):a010272-a010272. doi:10.1101/cshperspect.a010272
  58. Sobotková K, Parker W, Levá J, Růžková J, Lukeš J, Jirků Pomajbíková K. Helminth Therapy – From the Parasite Perspective. Trends in Parasitology. 2019/07/01/ 2019;35(7):501-515. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2019.04.009
  59. Smallwood TB, Giacomin PR, Loukas A, Mulvenna JP, Clark RJ, Miles JJ. Helminth Immunomodulation in Autoimmune Disease. Frontiers in Immunology. 2017;8doi:10.3389/fimmu.2017.00453
  60. Garg SK, Croft AM, Bager P. Helminth therapy (worms) for induction of remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2014;(1)doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009400.pub2
  61. Murphy PA, Jailkhani N, Nicholas S-A, et al. Alternative Splicing of FN (Fibronectin) Regulates the Composition of the Arterial Wall Under Low Flow. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 2020;doi:10.1161/atvbaha.120.314013
  62. Strominger MB, Slamovits TL, Herskovitz S, Lipton RB. Transient worsening of optic neuropathy as a sequela of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in the treatment of Lyme disease. J Neuroophthalmol. 1994/06// 1994;14(2):77-80.
  63. Klein VR, Cox SM, Mitchell MD, Wendel GD. The Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction complicating syphilotherapy in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 1990/03// 1990;75(3 Pt 1):375-380.
  64. Kaplanski G, Granel B, Vaz T, Durand JM. Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction complicating the treatment of chronic Q fever endocarditis: elevated TNFalpha and IL-6 serum levels. J Infect. 1998/07// 1998;37(1):83-84. doi:10.1016/s0163-4453(98)91120-3
  65. Guerrier G, D’Ortenzio E. The Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction in Leptospirosis: A Systematic Review. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e59266. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0059266
  66. Fekade D, Knox K, Hussein K, et al. Prevention of Jarisch–Herxheimer Reactions by Treatment with Antibodies against Tumor Necrosis Factor α. New England Journal of Medicine. 1996;335(5):311-315. doi:10.1056/nejm199608013350503
  67. Butler T. The Jarisch–Herxheimer Reaction After Antibiotic Treatment of Spirochetal Infections: A Review of Recent Cases and Our Understanding of Pathogenesis. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 2017;96(1):46-52. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.16-0434
  68. Belum GR, Belum VR, Chaitanya Arudra SK, Reddy BSN. The Jarisch–Herxheimer reaction: Revisited. Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 2013/07/01/ 2013;11(4):231-237. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmaid.2013.04.001
  69. Barnes PJ. Pathophysiology of allergic inflammation. Immunological Reviews. 2011;242(1):31-50. doi:https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-065X.2011.01020.x
  70. Cool CD. Overview of the Histologic Patterns in Interstitial Lung Disease. Elsevier; 2019.
  71. de Sousa Moreira JL, Barbosa SMB, Vieira JG, et al. The psychiatric and neuropsychiatric repercussions associated with severe infections of COVID-19 and other coronaviruses. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. Mar 2 2021;106:110159. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2020.110159
  72. Fitzgerald KA, Kagan JC. Toll-like Receptors and the Control of Immunity. Cell. 2020;180(6):1044-1066. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2020.02.041
  73. Gadani SP, Cronk JC, Norris GT, Kipnis J. IL-4 in the Brain: A Cytokine To Remember. The Journal of Immunology. 2012;189(9):4213-4219. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.1202246
  74. Gibofsky A. Overview of epidemiology, pathophysiology, and diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis. Am J Manag Care. Dec 2012;18(13 Suppl):S295-302.
  75. Ha Y-J, Lee YJ, Kang EH. Lung Involvements in Rheumatic Diseases: Update on the Epidemiology, Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, and Treatment. BioMed Research International. 2018/05/08 2018;2018:6930297. doi:10.1155/2018/6930297
  76. Hall R, Hall IP, Sayers I. Genetic risk factors for the development of pulmonary disease identified by genome‐wide association. Respirology. 2019;24(3):204-214. doi:10.1111/resp.13436
  77. Jarukitsopa S, Hoganson DD, Crowson CS, et al. Epidemiology of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus in a Predominantly White Population in the United States. Arthritis Care & Research. 2015;67(6):817-828. doi:10.1002/acr.22502
  78. Kalra R, Singh SP, Pena-Philippides JC, Langley RJ, Razani-Boroujerdi S, Sopori ML. Immunosuppressive and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Nicotine Administered by Patch in an Animal Model. Clinical Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology. 2004;11(3):563-568. doi:10.1128/cdli.11.3.563-568.2004
  79. Kobayashi N, Takezaki S, Kobayashi I, et al. Clinical and laboratory features of fatal rapidly progressive interstitial lung disease associated with juvenile dermatomyositis. Rheumatology. 2015;54(5):784-791. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/keu385
  80. Konig MF. The microbiome in autoimmune rheumatic disease. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 2020/02/01/ 2020;34(1):101473. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.berh.2019.101473
  81. Lakhan SE, Kirchgessner A. Anti-inflammatory effects of nicotine in obesity and ulcerative colitis. Journal of Translational Medicine. 2011;9(1):129. doi:10.1186/1479-5876-9-129
  82. Mabley J, Gordon S, Pacher P. Nicotine Exerts an Anti-inflammatory Effect in a Murine Model of Acute Lung Injury. Inflammation. 2011;34(4):231-237. doi:10.1007/s10753-010-9228-x
  83. Meng Y, Li T, Zhou G-S, et al. The Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/Angiotensin (1–7)/Mas Axis Protects Against Lung Fibroblast Migration and Lung Fibrosis by Inhibiting the NOX4-Derived ROS-Mediated RhoA/Rho Kinase Pathway. Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 2015;22(3):241-258. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5818
  84. MOGULKOC N, KARAKURT S, ISALSKA B, et al. Acute Purulent Exacerbation of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 1999;160(1):349-353. doi:10.1164/ajrccm.160.1.9809041
  85. O'Neill A, Wilson R, Blest-Hopley G, et al. Normalization of mediotemporal and prefrontal activity, and mediotemporal-striatal connectivity, may underlie antipsychotic effects of cannabidiol in psychosis. Psychological Medicine. 2021;51(4):596-606. doi:10.1017/S0033291719003519
  86. Pahwa R, Goyal A, Bansal P, Jialal I. Chronic Inflammation. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing - Copyright © 2020, StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2020.
  87. Ponsford J, Alway Y, Gould KR. Epidemiology and Natural History of Psychiatric Disorders After TBI. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. 2018;30(4):262-270. doi:10.1176/appi.neuropsych.18040093
  88. Quik M. Smoking, nicotine and Parkinson's disease. Trends in Neurosciences. 2004;27(9):561-568. doi:10.1016/j.tins.2004.06.008
  89. Renzoni EA, Abraham DJ, Howat S, et al. Gene expression profiling reveals novel TGFβ targets in adult lung fibroblasts. Respiratory Research. 2004;5(1)doi:10.1186/1465-9921-5-24
  90. Reynolds HY. Lung inflammation: normal host defense or a complication of some diseases? Annu Rev Med. 1987;38:295-323. doi:10.1146/annurev.me.38.020187.001455
  91. Sahbaz C, Zibandey N, Kurtulmus A, et al. Reduced regulatory T cells with increased proinflammatory response in patients with schizophrenia. Psychopharmacology. 2020/06/01 2020;237(6):1861-1871. doi:10.1007/s00213-020-05504-0
  92. Sangha O. Epidemiology of rheumatic diseases. Rheumatology. 2000;39(suppl_2):3-12. doi:10.1093/rheumatology/39.suppl_2.3
  93. Saraya T, Nakata K, Nakagaki K, et al. Identification of a mechanism for lung inflammation caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae using a novel mouse model. Results in Immunology. 2011;1(1):76-87. doi:10.1016/j.rinim.2011.11.001
  94. Schatorjé E, Van Der Flier M, Seppänen M, et al. Primary immunodeficiency associated with chromosomal aberration – an ESID survey. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases. 2016;11(1)doi:10.1186/s13023-016-0492-1
  95. Torrey EF, Yolken RH. Schizophrenia as a pseudogenetic disease: A call for more gene-environmental studies. Psychiatry Research. 2019/08/01/ 2019;278:146-150. doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2019.06.006
  96. Troyer EA, Kohn JN, Hong S. Are we facing a crashing wave of neuropsychiatric sequelae of COVID-19? Neuropsychiatric symptoms and potential immunologic mechanisms. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 2020;87:34-39. doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.027
  97. Van Der Woude D, Van Der Helm-Van Mil AHM. Update on the epidemiology, risk factors, and disease outcomes of rheumatoid arthritis. Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology. 2018;32(2):174-187. doi:10.1016/j.berh.2018.10.005
  98. Aghasafari P, George U, Pidaparti R. A review of inflammatory mechanism in airway diseases. Inflammation Research. 2019;68(1):59-74. doi:10.1007/s00011-018-1191-2
  99. Arroyo JP, Schweickert AJ. Functional Anatomy of the Lungs and Capillaries. Elsevier; 2015:19-30.
  100. Aung HH, Sivakumar A, Gholami SK, Venkateswaran SP, Gorain B, Shadab. Chapter 1 - An Overview of the Anatomy and Physiology of the Lung. In: Kesharwani P, ed. Nanotechnology-Based Targeted Drug Delivery Systems for Lung Cancer. Academic Press; 2019:1-20.
  101. Belvisi M. Overview of the innervation of the lung. Current Opinion in Pharmacology. 2002;2(3):211-215. doi:10.1016/s1471-4892(02)00145-5
  102. Craven J. The lungs and their relations. Anaesthesia & Intensive Care Medicine. 2008;9(11):459-461. doi:10.1016/j.mpaic.2008.08.003
  103. Eeden SV, Leipsic J, Man SFP, Sin DD. The Relationship between Lung Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2012;186(1):11-16. doi:10.1164/rccm.201203-0455PP
  104. Leslie KO, Wick MR. Lung Anatomy. Elsevier; 2018:1-14.e2.
  105. Matoba K, Hyodoh H, Murakami M, et al. Estimating normal lung weight measurement using postmortem CT in forensic cases. Legal Medicine. 2017;29:77-81. doi:10.1016/j.legalmed.2017.10.014
  106. Moldoveanu B, Otmishi P, Jani P, et al. Inflammatory mechanisms in the lung. J Inflamm Res. 2009;2:1-11.
  107. Newell RL. Anatomy of the Post-laryngeal Airways, Lungs and Diaphragm. Surgery (Oxford). 2003;21(3):57-61. doi:10.1383/surg.21.3.57.14673
  108. Rehman S, Bacha D. Embryology, Pulmonary. StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing - Copyright © 2020, StatPearls Publishing LLC.; 2020.
  109. Weibel ER, Gomez DM. Architecture of the Human Lung. Use of quantitative methods establishes fundamental relations between size and number of lung structures. 1962;137(3530):577-585. doi:10.1126/science.137.3530.577
  110. Zhou-Suckow Z, Duerr J, Hagner M, Agrawal R, Mall MA. Airway mucus, inflammation and remodeling: emerging links in the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases. Cell and Tissue Research. 2017/03/01 2017;367(3):537-550. doi:10.1007/s00441-016-2562-z
  111. Nelson C, Elmendorf S, Mead P. Neoplasms Misdiagnosed as “Chronic Lyme Disease”. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2015;175(1):132. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2014.5426
  112. Meroueh SO, Bencze KZ, Hesek D, et al. Three-dimensional structure of the bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2006;103(12):4404-4409. doi:10.1073/pnas.0510182103
  113. Riedel S. Biological Warfare and Bioterrorism: A Historical Review. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings. 2004;17(4):400-406. doi:10.1080/08998280.2004.11928002
  114. Schaechter M, Engleberg NC, DiRita VJ, Dermody T. Schaechter's mechanisms of microbial disease. Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013.
  115. Baseman J. Mycoplasmas: Sophisticated, Reemerging, and Burdened by Their Notoriety. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 1997;3(1):21-32. doi:10.3201/eid0301.970103
  116. Benedetti F, Curreli S, Zella D. Mycoplasmas-Host Interaction: Mechanisms of Inflammation and Association with Cellular Transformation. Microorganisms. Sep 4 2020;8(9)doi:10.3390/microorganisms8091351
  117. Holderfield MT, Hughes CC. Crosstalk between vascular endothelial growth factor, notch, and transforming growth factor-beta in vascular morphogenesis. Circ Res. Mar 28 2008;102(6):637-52. doi:10.1161/circresaha.107.167171
  118. Jiang S, Zhang S, Langenfeld J, Lo SC, Rogers MB. Mycoplasma infection transforms normal lung cells and induces bone morphogenetic protein 2 expression by post-transcriptional mechanisms. J Cell Biochem. May 15 2008;104(2):580-94. doi:10.1002/jcb.21647
  119. Li L, Luo D, Liao Y, Peng K, Zeng Y. Mycoplasma genitalium Protein of Adhesion Induces Inflammatory Cytokines via Cyclophilin A-CD147 Activating the ERK-NF-κB Pathway in Human Urothelial Cells. Frontiers in Immunology. 2020;11doi:10.3389/fimmu.2020.02052
  120. Nicolson GL. The Use of Animal Tumor Models to Study the Role of the Tumor Microenvironment and Paracrine and Autocrine Growth Mechanisms in Metastasis to Specific Sites. Cell Culture in Pharmaceutical Research. 1994:103-123:chap Chapter 7.
  121. Singer SJ, Nicolson GL. The Fluid Mosaic Model of the Structure of Cell Membranes. Science. 1972;175(4023):720-731. doi:10.1126/science.175.4023.720
  122. Wade CI, Earley KE, Justin GA, Weber ML. Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease presenting secondary to a post-infectious Mycoplasma pneumoniae autoimmune response. American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports. 2020;19:100793. doi:10.1016/j.ajoc.2020.100793
  123. Baqir M, Chen C-Z, Martin RJ, et al. Cigarette smoke decreases MARCO expression in macrophages: Implication in Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Respiratory Medicine. 2008;102(11):1604-1610. doi:10.1016/j.rmed.2008.05.002
  124. Ye Q, Xu X-J, Shao W-X, Pan Y-X, Chen X-J. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Children Is a Risk Factor for Developing Allergic Diseases. The Scientific World Journal. 2014/04/07 2014;2014:986527. doi:10.1155/2014/986527
  125. Gabridge MG, Johnson CK, Cameron AM. Cytotoxicity of Mycoplasma pneumoniae Membranes. Infection and Immunity. 1974;10(5):1127-1134.
  126. Hardy RD, Jafri HS, Olsen K, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniae Induces Chronic Respiratory Infection, Airway Hyperreactivity, and Pulmonary Inflammation: a Murine Model of Infection-Associated Chronic Reactive Airway Disease. Infection and Immunity. 2002;70(2):649-654. doi:10.1128/iai.70.2.649-654.2002
  127. Huang S. Mycoplasma infections and different human carcinomas. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2001;7(2):266. doi:10.3748/wjg.v7.i2.266
  128. Jujaray D, Juan LZ, Shrestha S, Ballgobin A. Pattern and Significance of Asymptomatic Elevation of Liver Enzymes in Mycoplasma Pneumonia in Children. Clinical Pediatrics. 2018;57(1):57-61. doi:10.1177/0009922816688737
  129. Lin L-J, Chang F-C, Chi H, et al. The diagnostic value of serological studies in pediatric patients with acute Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection. 2020;53(2):351-356. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2018.09.001
  130. Lin Y, Tan D, Kan Q, Xiao Z, Jiang Z. The Protective Effect of Naringenin on Airway Remodeling after Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection by Inhibiting Autophagy-Mediated Lung Inflammation and Fibrosis. Mediators of Inflammation. 2018/04/04 2018;2018:8753894. doi:10.1155/2018/8753894
  131. Medina JL, Coalson JJ, Brooks EG, et al. Mycoplasma pneumoniaeCARDS Toxin Induces Pulmonary Eosinophilic and Lymphocytic Inflammation. American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology. 2012;46(6):815-822. doi:10.1165/rcmb.2011-0135oc
  132. Messous S, Trabelsi I, Grissa MH, Nouira S, Pozzetto B, Mastouri M. Prevalence of Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgM and IgG antibodies in Tunisian patients presenting with exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses. 2017;47(2):158-163. doi:10.1016/j.medmal.2016.12.002
  133. Miyashita N, Sugiu T, Kawai Y, et al. Radiographic features of Mycoplasma pneumoniaepneumonia: differential diagnosis and performance timing. BMC Medical Imaging. 2009;9(1):7. doi:10.1186/1471-2342-9-7
  134. Naghib M, Hatam-Jahromi M, Niktab M, Ahmadi R, Kariminik A. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and toll-like receptors: A mutual avenue. Allergol Immunopathol (Madr). Sep-Oct 2018;46(5):508-513. doi:10.1016/j.aller.2017.09.021
  135. Narita M. Pathogenesis of extrapulmonary manifestations of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection with special reference to pneumonia. Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy. 2010;16(3):162-169. doi:10.1007/s10156-010-0044-x
  136. Nicolson GL. Pathogenic Mycoplasma Infections in Chronic Illnesses: General Considerations in Selecting Conventional and Integrative Treatments. International Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019;10(10):477-522. doi:10.4236/ijcm.2019.1010041
  137. Nicolson GL, De Mattos GF. COVID-19 Coronavirus: Is Infection along with Mycoplasma or Other Bacteria Linked to Progression to a Lethal Outcome? International Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020;11(05):282-302. doi:10.4236/ijcm.2020.115029
  138. Nicolson GL, Nasralla MY, Meirleir KD, Gan R, Haier J. Evidence for Bacterial (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia) and Viral (HHV-6) Co-Infections in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Patients. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2003/01/01 2003;11(2):7-19. doi:10.1300/J092v11n02_02
  139. Nicolson GL, Nasralla MY, Nicolson NL, Haier J. High Prevalence of Mycoplasma Infections in Symptomatic (Chronic Fatigue Syndrome) Family Members of Mycoplasma-Positive Gulf War Illness Patients. Journal of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. 2003/01/01 2003;11(2):21-36. doi:10.1300/J092v11n02_03
  140. Odeh AN, Simecka JW. Regulatory CD4+CD25+ T Cells Dampen Inflammatory Disease in Murine Mycoplasma Pneumonia and Promote IL-17 and IFN-γ Responses. PLOS ONE. 2016;11(5):e0155648. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0155648
  141. Poddighe D. Extra-pulmonary diseases related to Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children: recent insights into the pathogenesis. Current Opinion in Rheumatology. 2018;30(4):380-387. doi:10.1097/bor.0000000000000494
  142. Poddighe D. Mycoplasma pneumoniae-related hepatitis in children. Microb Pathog. Feb 2020;139:103863. doi:10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103863
  143. Pósa R, Magyar T, Stoev SD, et al. Use of Computed Tomography and Histopathologic Review for Lung Lesions Produced by the Interaction BetweenMycoplasma hyopneumoniaeand Fumonisin Mycotoxins in Pigs. Veterinary Pathology. 2013;50(6):971-979. doi:10.1177/0300985813480510
  144. Vilela Rodrigues TC, Jaiswal AK, De Sarom A, et al. Reverse vaccinology and subtractive genomics reveal new therapeutic targets against Mycoplasma pneumoniae : a causative agent of pneumonia. Royal Society Open Science. 2019;6(7):190907. doi:10.1098/rsos.190907
  145. Waites KB, Talkington DF. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Its Role as a Human Pathogen. Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 2004;17(4):697-728. doi:10.1128/cmr.17.4.697-728.2004
  146. Wu Z, Ding L, Bao J, et al. Co-infection of Mycoplasma gallisepticum and Escherichia coli Triggers Inflammatory Injury Involving the IL-17 Signaling Pathway. Frontiers in Microbiology. 2019;10doi:10.3389/fmicb.2019.02615
  147. Zella D, Curreli S, Benedetti F, et al. Mycoplasma promotes malignant transformation in vivo, and its DnaK, a bacterial chaperone protein, has broad oncogenic properties. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2018;115(51):E12005-E12014. doi:10.1073/pnas.1815660115
  148. Zhang X, Chen Z, Gu W, et al. Viral and bacterial co-infection in hospitalised children with refractory Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia. Epidemiology and Infection. 2018;146(11):1384-1388. doi:10.1017/s0950268818000778
  149. Aganovic N, Forsek Z. Influence of some moulds on the incidence of experimental Mycoplasma infection of fowls. Veterinaria, Sarajevo. 1968;17(2):167-170.
  150. Antonissen G, Martel A, Pasmans F, et al. The Impact of Fusarium Mycotoxins on Human and Animal Host Susceptibility to Infectious Diseases. Toxins. 2014;6(2):430-452. doi:10.3390/toxins6020430
  151. Bryden WL. Mycotoxins in the Food Chain and Human Health Implications. Encyclopedia of Environmental Health. Elsevier; 2019:515-523.
  152. Corrier DE. Mycotoxicosis: mechanisms of immunosuppression. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology. 1991;30(1):73-87. doi:10.1016/0165-2427(91)90010-a
  153. Karunasena E, Larrañaga MD, Simoni JS, Douglas DR, Straus DC. Building-associated neurological damage modeled in human cells: a mechanism of neurotoxic effects by exposure to mycotoxins in the indoor environment. Mycopathologia. Dec 2010;170(6):377-90. doi:10.1007/s11046-010-9330-5
  154. Loe DW, Stewart RK, Massey TE, Deeley RG, Cole SPC. ATP-Dependent Transport of Aflatoxin B1 and Its Glutathione Conjugates by the Product of the Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP) Gene. Molecular Pharmacology. 1997;51(6):1034-1041. doi:10.1124/mol.51.6.1034
  155. Lötter LH, Schabort JC. The effect of aflatoxins on mammalian acid deoxyribonucleases. International Journal of Biochemistry. 1983;15(6):817-825. doi:10.1016/0020-711x(83)90153-2
  156. Mitchell B, Kanellopoulos, Font RL. Post intrastromal corneal ring segments insertion complicated by Candida parapsilosis keratitis. Clinical Ophthalmology. 2013:443. doi:10.2147/opth.s39963
  157. Ostry V, Malir F, Toman J, Grosse Y. Mycotoxins as human carcinogens-the IARC Monographs classification. Mycotoxin Res. Feb 2017;33(1):65-73. doi:10.1007/s12550-016-0265-7
  158. Polak-Śliwińska M, Paszczyk B. Trichothecenes in Food and Feed, Relevance to Human and Animal Health and Methods of Detection: A Systematic Review. Molecules. 2021;26(2):454. doi:10.3390/molecules26020454
  159. Rushing BR, Selim MI. Aflatoxin B1: A review on metabolism, toxicity, occurrence in food, occupational exposure, and detoxification methods. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2019;124:81-100. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2018.11.047
  160. Szczypka MS, Wemmie JA, Moye-Rowley WS, Thiele DJ. A yeast metal resistance protein similar to human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and multidrug resistance-associated protein. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 1994;269(36):22853-22857. doi:10.1016/s0021-9258(17)31723-4
  161. Tirmenstein MA, Mangipudy R. Aflatoxin. Encyclopedia of Toxicology. Elsevier; 2014:104-106.
  162. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Related to Mycoplasma-Associated Autoimmune Encephalopathy with Basal Ganglia Involvement. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2016;26(4):400-402. doi:10.1089/cap.2015.0080
  163. Chang K, Frankovich J, Cooperstock M, et al. Clinical Evaluation of Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS): Recommendations from the 2013 PANS Consensus Conference. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):3-13. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0084
  164. Frankovich J, Thienemann M, Rana S, Chang K. Five Youth with Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome of Differing Etiologies. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2015;25(1):31-37. doi:10.1089/cap.2014.0056
  165. Sigra S, Hesselmark E, Bejerot S. Treatment of PANDAS and PANS: a systematic review. Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 2018;86:51-65. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2018.01.001
  166. Alkan M, Ofek I, Beachey EH. Adherence pharyngeal and skin strains of group A streptococci to human skin and oral epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity. 1977;18(2):555-557.
  167. Burgos J, Falcó V, Borrego A, et al. Impact of the emergence of non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes on the clinical presentation and outcome of adults with invasive pneumococcal pneumonia. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2013;19(4):385-391. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2012.03895.x
  168. Chiang-Ni C, Wu J-J. Effects of Streptococcal Pyrogenic Exotoxin B on Pathogenesis of Streptococcus pyogenes. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. 2008;107(9):677-685. doi:10.1016/s0929-6646(08)60112-6
  169. Heath A, Dirita VJ, Barg NL, Engleberg NC. A Two-Component Regulatory System, CsrR-CsrS, Represses Expression of Three Streptococcus pyogenesVirulence Factors, Hyaluronic Acid Capsule, Streptolysin S, and Pyrogenic Exotoxin B. Infection and Immunity. 1999;67(10):5298-5305. doi:10.1128/iai.67.10.5298-5305.1999
  170. Novick S, Shagan M, Blau K, et al. Adhesion and invasion of Streptococcus pneumoniae to primary and secondary respiratory epithelial cells. Molecular Medicine Reports. 2017;15(1):65-74. doi:10.3892/mmr.2016.5996
  171. Burrell CJ, Howard CR, Murphy FA. Laboratory Diagnosis of Virus Diseases. Fenner and White's Medical Virology. 2017:135-154. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-375156-0.00010-2
  172. Kost TA, Condreay JP, Jarvis DL. Baculovirus as versatile vectors for protein expression in insect and mammalian cells. Nature Biotechnology. 2005;23(5):567-575. doi:10.1038/nbt1095
  173. Leeflang MMG, Ang CW, Berkhout J, et al. The diagnostic accuracy of serological tests for Lyme borreliosis in Europe: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Infectious Diseases. 2016;16(1)doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1468-4
  174. Liu F, Wu X, Li L, Liu Z, Wang Z. Use of baculovirus expression system for generation of virus-like particles: Successes and challenges. Protein Expression and Purification. 2013;90(2):104-116. doi:10.1016/j.pep.2013.05.009
  175. Netto GJ, Saad RD, Dysert PA. Diagnostic Molecular Pathology: Current Techniques and Clinical Applications, Part I. Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings. 2003;16(4):379-383. doi:10.1080/08998280.2003.11927931
  176. Nir-Paz R, Michael-Gayego A, Ron M, Block C. Evaluation of eight commercial tests for Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies in the absence of acute infection. Clinical Microbiology and Infection. 2006;12(7):685-688. doi:10.1111/j.1469-0691.2006.01469.x
  177. Sillis M. The limitations of IgM assays in the serological diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections. Journal of Medical Microbiology. 1990;33(4):253-258. doi:10.1099/00222615-33-4-253
  178. Valones MAA, Guimarães RL, Brandão LAC, Souza PRED, Carvalho ADAT, Crovela S. Principles and applications of polymerase chain reaction in medical diagnostic fields: a review. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. 2009;40(1):1-11. doi:10.1590/s1517-83822009000100001
  179. Calvete JJ, Rivas G, Maruri M, et al. Tryptic digestion of human GPIIIa. Isolation and biochemical characterization of the 23 kDa N-terminal glycopeptide carrying the antigenic determinant for a monoclonal antibody (P37) which inhibits platelet aggregation. Biochemical Journal. 1988;250(3):697-704. doi:10.1042/bj2500697
  180. Riley PA. Phages: their role in bacterial pathogenesis and biotechnology. Journal of Clinical Pathology. 2006;59(9):1003-1004. doi:10.1136/jcp.2005.035774
  181. Chaitanya KV. Structure and Organization of Virus Genomes. Springer Singapore; 2019:1-30.
  182. Countryman J, Gradoville L, Bhaduri-Mcintosh S, et al. Stimulus Duration and Response Time Independently Influence the Kinetics of Lytic Cycle Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus. Journal of Virology. 2009;83(20):10694-10709. doi:10.1128/jvi.01172-09
  183. Forterre P. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint. Origins of Life and Evolution of Biospheres. 2010;40(2):151-160. doi:10.1007/s11084-010-9194-1
  184. Martinet J, Dufeu–Duchesne T, Bruder Costa J, et al. Altered Functions of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and Reduced Cytolytic Activity of Natural Killer Cells in Patients With Chronic HBV Infection. Gastroenterology. 2012/12/01/ 2012;143(6):1586-1596.e8. doi:https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2012.08.046
  185. Park SK, Sack C, Sirén MJ, Hu H. Environmental Cadmium and Mortality from Influenza and Pneumonia in U.S. Adults. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2020;128(12):127004. doi:10.1289/ehp7598
  186. Wang D, Harmon A, Jin J, et al. The Lack of an Inherent Membrane Targeting Signal Is Responsible for the Failure of the Matrix (M1) Protein of Influenza A Virus To Bud into Virus-Like Particles. Journal of Virology. 2010;84(9):4673-4681. doi:10.1128/jvi.02306-09
  187. Long-term treatment with sub-antimicrobial dose doxycycline has no antibacterial effect on intestinal flora https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.1111/j.1600-051X.2005.00840.x
  188. Systemic doxycycline administration in the treatment of periodontal infections (II) https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1600-051X.1999.tb02521.x

Cellular Turnover Rates

  1. Cell Renewal
  2. How Quickly Do Different Cells In The Body Replace Themselves?
  3. Physiology of Self Renewal